Humoral immunity utilizes antibodies and immune-effector cells as well as molecular immune complexes involving the complement system to mediate the killing of dysregulated cancer cells. We refer to these anti-cancer mechanisms as Humoral Immuno-Oncology or HIO. Suppression of HIO is mediated by tumor-produced proteins called HIO factors. To date, we have identified HIO-1, HIO-2, and HIO-3 factors via our unique patient tumor screening methods. The graphic below shows the mechanism by which HIO-1 suppresses the killing of cancer cells mediated by the complement and NK cells. Our proprietary Block-Removed Immunoglobulin Technology (BRITE) and screening platforms enable us to engineer antibodies to be refractory or antagonist to the immunosuppression mediated by the HIO factors. 

Humoral Immunity Suppressed by HIO-1 factor
Humoral Immunity Suppressed by HIO-1 factor